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# STRUCTURES AND FORCES-LESSON 1-LESSON 2

Welcome to STRUCTURES AND FORCES (TECHNOLOGIES 1st ESO)

Lesson 2: Structural types.

LESSON 1

Aims of lesson:

1. To understand how a structure works.
2. To recognize and identify the different forces.

Students will know about...

• Strengths and structure
 Students will know about Learning Resource or Activity Description Concept of strength and structure. Task 1:Divide in groups students will look for the most important words of the text. discovering forces and structures. (in groups) In groups, students will think on different structures and what forces act upon them. Type of structures and conditions that they have to fulfill. Task: Let´s look for structures! (in groups) In groups, students will look in the internet for images of the diverse types of structures.

Lesson 2: Structural types.

 Students will know about… Learning Resource or Activity Description Different  types of structures. Conditions of structures: rigidity, resistance and stability. Different types of structures that are used in everyday life. Structural elements: beams, pillars, etc. Starting routine: what can you remember? Presentation with pictures and explanations. Questions to review concepts of previous lesson. Task 1: How buildings stand, video and debate Task 2: Classifying structures Hand-out (speaking, drawing and writing activities) + pair work. One student will describe a structure, the other student will draw it. Then students switch. - thinking activity: Conditions of structures. Conditions of structures: rigidity, resistance and stability. Teacher describes a structure. Learners draw it on their notebooks. After that, the teacher checks their comprehension. Task 3: in pairs students answer questions. Task 4:: on-line activities On-line activity to match structural types with its elements. (individual). On-line activity to match internal forces with structural typologies. (individual) Ending the lesson. Glossary Time to think about new words which learners don't know.  Words are written on the board and revised by the teacher.
LESSON 1: INTRODUCTION AND PREVIOUS CONCEPTS

Natural and man-made structures

Transcription:

Good morning scientists as we continue our unit on structures today we're going to look at various man-made and natural structures.

What do you think of when you hear the word structure?

People often think of buildings when they hear this word and mostly famous once but not all structures are buildings.

Structures are all sorts of things, a desk, a home,  a vehicle, a bed and even a mailbox. Structures do many things. They provide warmth, they do things, hold things, some structures are gathering places, some tell a story. Some structures are a part of society and some structures are landmarks, some structures are just nice to look at.

Some structures are man-made that means people made or built them such as cars, houses, mailboxes or buildings but sometimes nature provides us with structures. These structures are found naturally in the environment and they are not made by people. Sometimes forces such as erosion make natural structures: bee hive, tree, nest ant hive  and even the Grand Canyon are all examples of natural structures.

Turn your partner and tell them if this structure is a man-made or natural structure, tell your partner what the structures made up.

An igloo is an example of a man-made structure even though is made from something found in nature.

This is a picture of Mount Everest, is that man made? for natural?  What do you think it's made up?

This is an example of a natural structure: this is a picture of a well-known bridge found in San Francisco,  is it man-made or natural?

This structure is definitely man made. Do you think the structure is man-made or natural?

This is Stonehenge and it's made of stone which is part of nature but people moved and pile of the stones, while we are not sure how it was done we know nature cannot arrange stones this way, so this is an example of a man-made structure.

Sometimes things found in nature inspire people, take this beaver dam for example. The beaver dam is an example of a natural structure, while the dam on the right is clearly a man-made structure.

Thank You scientists keep, asking questions and keep investigating.

Task 1: Key words.

Divided in groups of four, you have to identify the six words that you consider to be the most important.

You can debate with your partners and after 5 minutes the class will be brought together. Every group will write on the board their words explaining the reason. Each word will considered in turn with the group who nominated it will be asked to justify its inclusion.

Conclusions will be written on your notebooks.

Task 2: in groups students will look in the internet for different types of structures.

LESSON 2

How buildings stand

Transcription:

Ever wonder how tall buildings can withstand windy days, or why bridges don't collapse when large trucks drive over them? The answer is structural engineering. Structural engineers use physics and math to design and analyze the sturdiness of structures, things like bridges, buildings, concert stages, and even rollercoasters. Don't get me wrong. Designing any one of these things can involve multiple types of engineering, but it's structural engineering that's responsible for making sure that that structure won't collapse or fall over. You see, a structure must be able to handle the forces or loads that it's likely to experience. Take a skyscraper, for example. It not only has to support itself, but also all the people and furniture inside the building, and then external factors, like wind, snow, or an earthquake.

The materials and geometry that make up a structure influence how it may respond to those forces. Different materials have different properties, like strength, weight, and flammability, that can influence a structure's sturdiness. For example, steel is generally stronger, and weighs more than wood, and different geometric shapes work better for different purposes. For example, a square or rectangular base can typically hold more weight than a triangular base. Structural engineers perform calculations to determine the best materials and shapes to use in order to build a study structure. The next time you find yourself at the top of a rollercoaster, you can thank structural engineers for doing their part to make sure it's nice and sturdy.

Task 1: Describing structures.

students in pairs.

Hand-out (speaking, drawing and writing activities) + pair work.

One student will describe a structure, the other student will draw it. Then students switch

Task 2: thinking activity; Conditions of structures.

Conditions of structures: rigidity, resistance and stability.

Teacher describes a structure.

Learners draw it on their notebooks.

After that, teacher checks their comprehension.

Task 3:In pairs students answer these questions:
• Think on three different situations where forces are used in your everyday life.

• Draw the forces affecting the bicycle and the rider

• Have you ever been on a plane or diving? Have you feel any of these forces?

Talk to your partner and try to explain him it would have been without any of these forces.

Would the plane have take off? Would you have been dragged to the bottom of the sea?